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They say that bonsai, bought at the store, is only half of the bonsai. It’s not about the beauty, originality, effectiveness of plants – it’s a matter of love and patience, which are invested in it. The Japanese, great masters of bonsai, are sure that it is possible to grow bonsai only in the heart.
Those who are just beginning to grow bonsai, it is better to “bring up” the tree of hardwood – the deciduous root system is not as ramified as that of conifers. You can take a small oak, birch, maple, chestnut, rowan – seedlings of these plants are not so rare. Of course, bonsai deciduous tree in the cold season will remain without leaves, but the bizarrely curved branches in conjunction with the beautiful shape of the trunk will make it very spectacular.
And after you can grow a deciduous bonsai, you can proceed to the formation of bonsai-conifers. Pine, spruce, cypress, araucaria, and juniper are well shaped.
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Blooming bonsai – this is a grand splendor, but work with them is more difficult. In principle, the formation of these plants is exactly the same as in others, but it is difficult at the same time to preserve the form of bonsai (to trim) and to protect the buds on the branches from which flowers are born. Nevertheless, many grow bonsai rhododendron, azalea, acacia, indoor pomegranate, lemon, mandarin, plum, cherry.
How to contain the growth of bonsai?
The most important thing in shaping bonsai is to restrain plant growth. Therefore, the land for its cultivation should not be fertile. Containers are used shallow – so that the plant can not grow a branched root system.
First, of course, you need to do the drainage: lay on the bottom of the bowl of small stones, expanded clay, perlite, vermiculite. After that, fill the gaps between the individual fractions of the drainage sand, and above them lay a layer of garden soil. The earth should be light, well permeable to moisture and air, and therefore it is better to mix it with peat (1: 1) and add a little sand.
Planting a sowing of a tree, the roots need to be cut and straightened so that they lie horizontally in the ground. It is better to plant the plant in summer in order to be able to take a tree on a balcony or put it under an open window on the windowsill: fresh air is what a seedling used to, and until he gets accustomed, one must fulfill all his whims.
If the tree grows more actively than you want, you can pause it. To do this, the trunk is cut at the very base, and a strip of bark is removed in a circular manner. And the tree itself is excavated and transplanted into another container. It must be deeper than the bowl, so that the cut is underground. As a result of these manipulations, new roots begin to grow on the site of the cut. That they were formed, it takes a lot of time – a year, and even a half. After that, the tree will need to be dig out again, remove the old roots, and put the tree in a bowl.
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Methods of forming bonsai
As soon as you feel that the tree has not only started, but also strengthened (for this, you usually need to wait 1.5-2 months), you can begin to form bonsai. The methods of formation are fairly simple, the main thing is to carry them out regularly.
First of all, you need to work with the roots of the tree, little by little (2 times a year) pruning them. For this, you do not need to dig out the whole tree, it is enough to remove the earth from the roots.
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To give a “bonsai” shape to the stem, it needs to be tightened with a strong wire – strong enough, but not to the extent that the wire cuts the bark. The movement of juices under the bark of the tree will be slowed down by a barrier, and a thickening characteristic of bonsai grows in this place. Of course, everything is good in moderation: the thickening should not be too large – it can maim a tree. Therefore, as soon as the barrel begins to thicken, the wire is immediately removed.
The roots of the tree can protrude above the ground, bending, as if clinging to it. This is achieved simply: from time to time, the roots that are at the surface of the earth, it is necessary to lift above it, bend and fix it with wire.
Work on tree branches is perhaps the most exciting part, as the result is visible quickly. You can bend the branches, fixing them with wire. But the most interesting is to “bring to life” new shoots. If you trim the branch, a new one will grow from the kidney, which is below the cut.
Where do you need to start?
The formation of bonsai takes a long time, as it is impossible to simultaneously engage the roots and the above-ground part of the plant – the tree can not withstand such a load. Each time the work is carried out only on one part of the plant: roots, trunk or branches.
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Those who are not sure of their abilities, first of all, it is worth buying a prebond in the nursery or flower shop – a plant growing in the plant, which was subjected to the initial formation. You will only have to continue the work, which, of course, is much easier than starting from scratch.